WISC:

 

 

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

 When: 1949

Who: David Wechsler

 

Contributions to Child Psychology:

This intelligence test was developed as a result of the culmination of the Binet-Simon Scale, the Stanford-Binet Scale, as well as the Wechsler-Bellevue. (Boake, 2002) This test was created as a measure of intelligence for children ranging from ages 6 to 16. It was developed to be used as a diagostic instrument; however, the scores are not to be considered as the only basis for diagnosis. (Prifitera , Saklofske, & Weiss, 2005)  Although the Wechsler Intelligence Scale of Children (WISC) was developed in the same format as other intelligence tests before it, it differed in the way which the scores were calculated. Instead of looking at mental age versus chronological age according to each child, the scores are calculated on a standardized point scale. The WISC has been revised many times and is now in its 4th edition. This test has been able to evolve as well as maintain its original integrity because the original version provided a basic standardization procedure for others to follow. Unlike the tests before it, the results of this test are interpreted within the different subtests opposed to a general score of intelligence.  (Boake, 2002) Due to its guidelines for standardization, this test has been revised in order to become more racially and culturally applicable since the original version was based on the exclusively white individuals. Therefore, we can see not only how these intelligence tests have evolved through their own revisions but also from previous tests as a result of both the academic and social context of the times.

Test Format:

The four sub-scales are the following:

 

  •   Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI)
    • Information
    • Comprehension
    • Similarities
    • Vocabulary
    • Word Reasoning
  •    Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)
    • Block Design
    • Matrix Reasoning
    • Picture Completion
    • Picture Concepts
  •    Working Memory Index (WMI)
    • Digit Span
    • Arithmetic
    • Letter-Number Sequencing
  •     Processing Speed Index (PSI)
    •        Symbol Search
    •        Coding
    •        Cancellation

 

Demonstration of the Verbal Subtest:

 

Intelligence testing        Binet-Simon Scale           Stanford-Binet Scale            References

 

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